|United States Patent
July 10, 1984
Level wind spinning wheel
A level wind spinning wheel has an improved flyer assembly wherein a level
wind mechanism is incorporated in one arm of the flyer in such a way that
the arm is free at one end for direct drive and axial removal of the
bobbin. The arm comprises a rigid hollow tube extending parallel to the
flyer spindle and having a cross-threaded journaled rod for rotation in
its ends. A proximal end of the tube is supportingly connected to the
spindle via a transverse member, which carries a gear train for rotating
the rod. A traveler mounted on the rod carries an eye which protrudes
through a lengthwise slot in the tube. A bobbin received on the spindle
has a first gear which drives, through the gear train, a second gear
mounted concentrically on the rod within the proximal end of the tube. The
tube encloses and supports the cross-threaded rod and second gear. The
slot retains the traveler eye against rotation on the rod as the traveler
moves back and forth along the rod to uniformly wind yarn onto the bobbin.
Lee; Robert W. (24451 S. Central Point Rd., Canby, OR 97013)
September 24, 1982|
|Current U.S. Class:
||57/71; 57/316 |
||D01H 007/24; D01H 003/00|
|Field of Search:
References Cited [Referenced By]
U.S. Patent Documents
Alden Amos's, "Spinning Wheel Primer", 1976.
Spin-Off Quarterly Newsletter, Dec. 1981, p. 2.
Primary Examiner: Petrakes; John
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Klarquist, Sparkman, Campbell, Leigh & Whinston
1. A flyer assembly for a spinning wheel, comprising:
a flyer having a spindle and an arm, the arm having a free distal end and a
proximal end rigidly connected to and radially spaced from the spindle;
a bobbin received on the spindle for rotation relative to the flyer and
axially removable therefrom;
level wind means extending lengthwise of the arm for distributing yarn
uniformly along the length of the bobbin; and
gear means interconnecting the bobbin and the level wind means for driving
the level wind means upon relative rotation of the bobbin and the flyer;
the gear means being positioned adjacent the proximal end of the arm, the
gear means including a first gear mounted on an axial end face of the
bobbin concentrically of the spindle, the first gear being axially
disengageable from the gear means, whereby the bobbin can be removed
axially from the spindle in the direction of the free distal end of the
arm without disassembling the flyer assembly.
2. A flyer assembly according to claim 1 in which the bobbin includes a
different sized whorl at each end so that the bobbin can be reversed for
operation at two different speeds, a first gear being mounted on each
axial end face of the bobbin for interchangeable engagement in said gear
3. A flyer assembly according to claim 1 in which the level wind means
includes a cross-threaded elongated member rotatable by the drive means, a
traveler means threaded on the member for longitudinal back and forth
movement, means defining an eye mounted on the traveler means for guiding
yarn lengthwise along the arm, and means extending lengthwise of said
cross-threaded member in a predetermined angular position for retaining
the traveler against rotation about said member.
4. A flyer assembly according to claim 3 in which said arm comprises a
rigid tubular member enclosing the elongated member and providing support
therefor, the elongated member being journaled for rotation in the ends of
the tubular member, and a slot extending lengthwise of the tubular member
for the eye to travel along, a side of the slot defining said retaining
means; said gear means including a second gear drivingly mounted on the
elongated member within said tubular member.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates generally to spinning wheels and more particularly
to a spinning wheel flyer assembly adapted for level winding of yarn onto
a bobbin during spinning.
The heart of a spinning wheel is its flyer assembly. As disclosed in Alden
Amos, "Spinning Wheel Primer," 1976, a conventional flyer assembly in a
manually-operated spinning wheel includes a flyer and a bobbin. The flyer
comprises a spindle mounting a U-shaped member symmetrically connected to
the base of the spindle. Conventionally, a row of hooks is distributed
along one or both arms of the flyer to guide the yarn to a selected axial
position along the bobbin. Alternatively, a single hook is mounted on a
sleeve which is manually slidable along the arm. The spindle provides
rotational support for the bobbin and includes an axial orifice in its
base for introducing unspun fiber, such as wool, into the machine.
The flyer assembly is rotated to spin the fiber entering the orifice into
yarn. The spun yarn is wound onto the bobbin, which rotates relative to
the flyer to draw yarn through the hooks onto the bobbin. The bobbin draws
the yarn outwardly through a radial opening in the side of the orifice
structure and along one arm of the flyer, guided by the hooks. To wind
yarn onto a different axial position along the bobbin, the yarn is shifted
from one hook to another along the length of the arm.
It is desirable to wind the spun yarn onto the bobbin as uniformly as
possible to get as much yarn on the bobbin before it is full and to
facilitate winding the yarn off the bobbin into a skein after the bobbin
is full. Doing so requires the spinner to periodically interrupt spinning
in order to manually shift the yarn from one hook to another. A few highly
skilled spinners can, by spinning at very high speed, cause the yarn to
loop from one hook to another without stopping spinning. However, few
spinners have this ability. For most spinners, it would be preferable to
have some means for automatically level winding yarn onto the bobbin
without having to interrupt spinning.
One attempt at poviding a level wind means is the level wind Ashford
spinning wheel, disclosed in SPIN-OFF Quarterly Newsletter, page 2,
December 1981. This machine utilizes a special mother-of-all or spinning
head frame member designed to automatically shift the bobbin axially back
and forth along the flyer spindle while the yarn feeds in through a fixed
set of guide eyes. However, this system is complex, requires relatively
radical and expensive changes to the structure of the spinning wheel and
is vulnerable to breakdown problems.
Another approach to providing level winding means in a spinning wheel is
disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,623,347 to Bishop. Bishop's design propose a
flyer assembly wherein a cross-threaded sleeve is mounted for rotation on
one arm of the flyer. A traveler is threaded on the sleeve for axial
movement back and forth, as the sleeve is rotated, to move an eye guiding
the thread axially along the bobbin to level wind the thread onto the
bobbin. The sleeve has a drive sheave mounted at one end which is driven
by a pulley connected to a sheave freely rotatable on the spindle,
positioned at the end of the bobbin opposite the orifice structure.
Although succeeding in level winding the yarn onto the bobbin, the
structure proposed by Bishop suffers from several drawbacks. First, it
cannot readily be used in the most common forms of spinning wheels. The
flyer of Bishop is a rectangular wire frame structure closed at both ends
and supported for rotation on a fixed spindle. The more commonly-used
forms of spinning wheels utilize a flyer having a rotatable spindle and a
U-shaped arm structure which is open at one end and connected to the
spindle for rotation therewith. That is, the flyer arms and spindle are
free at their ends remote from the orifice so that the bobbin can be
easily removed axially from the spindle. Such arms do not provide the
structural integrity to support a tensioned pulley drive at their free
ends. And to close the free ends of the flyer arms would greatly impair
the installation and removal of bobbins from the spindle. For similar
reasons, the level wind flyer assembly of Bishop cannot be used in a
single or dual drive bobbin-lead spinning wheel--its pulley and closed
frame preclude directly driving the bobbin.
Another drawback of Bishop's design is that the level wind mechanism,
requiring lubrication, rapidly gathers lint from the fiber being spun and
thus requires frequent cleaning to prevent the threads in the sleeve from
becoming plugged and rendering the level wind mechanism inoperative.
A further difficulty with the Bishop design is that constant tension must
be maintained on the yarn during spinning to prevent the traveler from
rotating with the sleeve and winding the yarn around the sleeve. This
limitation prevents the level wind mechanism of Bishop from being used
with the long draw technique of spinning. That technique is preferred for
high-production spinning. Rather than applying steady tension to the yarn,
the long draw technique calls for intermittently tensioning and then
releasing long segments of yarn for winding onto the bobbin. Using this
technique in the Bishop level wind flyer assembly would be disastrous.
Apart from limitations on the spinning technique that can be used, the
requirement that the yarn be continuously tensioned in the Bishop flyer
assembly makes it more difficult for inexperienced spinners to learn to
spin, because it adds another constraint to rather than simplifying the
process of spinning.
Accordingly, there remains a need for an improved level wind mechanism for
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is therefore one object of the invention to improve upon prior level
wind spinning wheels.
Another object of the invention is to incorporate a level wind capability
into flyer assemblies having free-ended flyer arms.
A further object of the invention is to provide a level wind flyer assembly
which can be readily installed in a conventional spinning wheel without
otherwise altering the structure of the wheel.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a level wind flyer
assembly which is usable in spinning wheels of all conventional types.
Other objects of the invention as aforesaid include:
1. enabling a level wind flyer assembly to be readily used with any
2. avoiding wrapping the yarn around the level wind mechanism; and
3. minimizing the need to clean the level wind mechanism.
In accordance with the invention, the foregoing objects are realized in a
flyer assembly wherein one of the flyer arms is a rigid hollow member,
free at one end, housing a cross-threaded rod which is journaled for
rotation within the ends of the arm. The arm has a lengthwise slot through
which protrudes an eye mounted on a traveler threaded on the rod to travel
back and forth along the arm as the rod turns to distribute yarn along the
bobbin. The bobbin is mounted for rotation on the flyer spindle and is
easily removable axially of the spindle between the free ends of the flyer
arms. A rotational drive means disposed along the transverse member of the
flyer, that is, its orifice end, drivingly interconnects the bobbin and
the cross-threaded rod. The drive means is preferably a gear train
including a first gear mounted on one or both end faces of the bobbin, a
second gear mounted concentrically on the cross-threaded rod, and one or
more intermediate gears mounted for rotation on the transverse member of
the flyer in position to mesh between the first and second gears.
This arrangement provides rigid support for the level wind mechanism
without having to close or otherwise brace the free ends of the flyer. It
also provides protection of the level wind mechanism from lint and dirt.
Additionally, it prevents rotation of the traveler around the
cross-threaded rod when, for example, the long draw spinning technique is
used. The use of gears rather than pulleys enables the bobbins to be
quickly exchanged. This level wind flyer assembly can be used in single
drive spinning wheels, either bobbin lead or flyer lead type, or in dual
drive bobbin lead spinning wheels.
The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the invention
will become more readily apparent from the following detailed description
of a preferred embodiment which proceeds with reference to the
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a perspective view from one side of a single drive bobbin lead
spinning wheel incorporating a level wind flyer assembly in accordance
with the invention.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged perspective view from the wheel end of the spinning
wheel of FIG. 1 showing the flyer assembly in greater detail.
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view taken along lines 3--3 in FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken along lines 4--4 in FIG. 3, the
bobbin being removed and the bobbin gear being shown in phantom lines.
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 5--5 in FIG. 3.
FIG. 6 is a view similar to that of FIG. 2 of a single drive flyer lead
level wind flyer assembly in accordance with the invention.
FIG. 7 is a view corresponding to that of FIG. 3 showing a dual drive
bobbin lead, level wind flyer assembly in accordance with the invention.
FIG. 8 is a transverse sectional view taken along lines 8--8 in FIG. 7, the
bobbin being removed and its gear being shown in phantom lines.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
Single Drive Bobbin Lead Wheel
Referring to FIG. 1, a spinning wheel 10 has a frame 12 supporting a wheel
14 at one end and a spinning head 16 at the opposite end. A treadle 18 is
connected via a pitman 20 to a crank 22 on wheel 14 for rotating the
wheel, as indicated by arrow 24. The particular form of wheel illustrated
in FIG. 1 is a Saxon wheel. The invention can be incorporated into other
types of wheels, for example, the upright wheel disclosed in the
aforementioned Bishop patent. In a single drive spinning wheel, wheel 22
drives a single pulley 26. In a dual drive wheel, wheel 22 additionally
drives a second pulley 27, as shown in FIG. 7.
Referring to FIG. 2, spinning head 16 comprises a pair of upright members
or maidens 30, 32 spaced laterally apart on a transverse frame member 33,
conventionally referred to as a "mother-of-all." Positioned in the upper
end of maiden 30 is a bearing mount 34 with a variable friction adjustment
screw 36. Similarly positioned in the upper end of maiden 32 is a spindle
end plate 38 with a spindle hole coaxially aligned with bearing holder 34.
Removably mounted in bearing holders 34, 38 is a flyer assembly 40.
Referring to FIG. 3, the flyer assembly comprises a flyer 42 and a bobbin
44. The flyer includes a spindle 46 having a distal end portion 48
received axially in the spindle hole in plate 38 and a proximal end
portion or base 49 terminating in a bearing 50 which is removably
supported for rotation in bearing holder 34. Disposed within and extending
axially through the spindle base is an orifice having an axial entrance 52
in the end face of bearing 50 and a radial outlet opening 54 on opposite
side of bearing 50, adjacent the flyer structure next described.
A rigid U-shaped structure, comprising a transverse member 56 and a pair of
parallel spaced-apart arms 58, 60 mounted on the ends of the transverse
member, is connected to the spindle base axially adjacent orifice outlet
opening 54. Transverse member 56 is a wooden member, in which arms 58, 60
are inserted and glued in position parallel to the spindle. Arm 58 is a
hollow metal tube having end plugs 59 in its ends. Arm 60 is similarly a
hollow metal tube having plugs 62, 64 fitted in its ends.
Incorporated in arm 60, in accordance with the invention, is a level wind
mechanism comprising a cross-threaded rod 66 having its ends journaled in
end plugs 62, 64. Received on rod 66 within tube 60 is a traveler 68, best
seen in FIG. 5, which moves back and forth along rod 66 as the rod
rotates. A pawl 71 carried by the traveler engages the threads and
reverses direction of the traveler when it reaches the end of the threaded
portion of the rod. A slot 70 extends lengthwise along arm 60. An eye 72,
mounted detachably on traveler 68 by means of a L-shaped stem 72a and set
screw 72b, protrudes through the slot for guiding yarn along the outside
of the tube. A second eye 73 is fixed to the transverse member 56
laterally adjacent arm 60.
Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, a spur gear 74, having a diameter slightly less
than the inside diameter of tube 60, is mounted on rod 66. Such gear is
positioned adjacent the insertion of tube 60 into transverse member 56, in
abutment with a bearing surface formed by an annular shoulder 63 of end
plug 62. A rectangular opening 76 is formed in a side of tube 60 adjacent
gear 74. Opening 76 is positioned on the side of the tube facing the
spindle 46 and extends circumferentially about one third of the way around
tube 60. A relatively larger diameter spur gear 78 is mounted on
transverse member 56 for rotation about an axis parallel to spindle 46 and
rod 66 and is positioned to mesh with gear 74 through opening 76.
Bobbin 44 comprises a tubular shaft 80 with disks 82, 84 concentrically
mounted on its opposite ends. Inserted in each end of tube 80 and
surrounding spindle 46 is an annular bushing 86, 88 having a T-shaped
cross section. External to tube 80, each of these bushings includes a
radially-extending annular flange toothed on its periphery to form spur
gears 90a, 90b at each axial end of the spindle. Both gears are sized to
mesh interchangeably with gear 78. End disk 82 has a small whorl 83 for
turning the bobbin at a fast speed when positioned adjacent spindle end 48
for connection to pulley 26, as shown in FIG. 3. The bobbin can be
reversed to position a larger whorl 85 on end disk 84 in alignment with
the spinning wheel for driving the bobbin at a slow speed. In either
bobbin position, the gear train is operable to drive the level wind
Gears 74, 78, 90a, 90b; bushings 86, 88; and end plugs 59, 62, 64 are
preferably made of ultra-high molecular weight plastic, hard nylon or
other low friction material. Plugs 59 in arm 58 are sized to
counterbalance arm 60 and the level wind mechanism.
In operation, pulley 26 rotates bobbin 44 as indicated by arrow 92 in FIG.
2. Friction of the bobbin through bushings 86, 88 tends to rotate the
flyer 42 in the same direction, as indicated by arrow 94. This rotation is
braked by the friction of bearing mount 34 engaging bearing 50, so that
the flyer rotates at a slower speed than the bobbin. Rotation of the flyer
causes fiber 96 extending into orifice 52, 54 to be twisted into yarn. The
relatively faster rotation of bobbin 44 causes the yarn to be drawn
through eyes 72, 73 and wound onto the bobbin. The same relative rotation
causes gear 90 on the bobbin to rotate relative to the flyer, as indicated
by arrow 100 in FIG. 4. Gear 90 counterrotates gear 78, as indicated by
arrow 102, which in turn rotates gear 74 and shaft 66, as indicated by
arrow 104. Rotation of threaded shaft 66 causes traveler 68 to move back
and forth along the rod, as indicated by arrow 69 in FIG. 1, to distribute
yarn 98 lengthwise along bobbin shaft 80. Tension on fiber 96 can freely
be relaxed, as in the long draw spinning technique, without adverse
consequences, as the slot 70 is tube 60 maintains the eye 72 in a fixed
angular position. To replace the bobbin when full, the flyer is removed
from bearing members 34, 38 and the bobbin is simply pulled axially from
the spindle shaft, the teeth of gears 78, 90 disengaging axially, and a
new bobbin is installed by reversing these steps.
In addition to a single drive bobbin lead spinning wheel, the invention can
be incorporated into other types of spinning wheels, as next described.
Single Drive Flyer Lead Wheel
Referring to FIG. 6, in a single drive flyer lead spinning wheel 110, the
flyer assembly 140 has a whorled drive disk 118 mounted on flyer 142
between transverse arm 56 and bearing 150 for connection to pulley 26. The
orifice 152 extends axially through disk 118 and has a radial outlet
opening 154 extending through a side of transverse member 156. A bobbin
144 is mounted on the spindle (not shown) of flyer 142 in the same manner
as described above for flyer assembly 40. Bobbin 144 has a whorled disk
182 only at its end remote from transverse member 156 and has a plain disk
184 at its end adjacent such member. Rotation of the flyer by pulley 26
tends to rotate the bobbin. An adjustable tension strap or belt 183
extends from the spinning wheel frame around disk 182 to act as a brake on
the bobbin so that the bobbin rotates at a slower speed than the flyer.
The flyer has arms 158, 160 which are substantially identical in structure
to arms 58, 60 in flyer assembly 40, like parts being indicated by like
reference numerals. Because the driven element is the flyer, the bobbin
need not be reversible and therefore has a gear 90 only at one end.
Dual Drive Bobbin Lead Wheel
Referring to FIG. 7, a dual drive bobbin lead flyer assembly 240 is
arranged for separately driving the flyer 242 and bobbin 244 via two
pulleys 26, 27, driven by a single wheel (not shown) similar to wheel 14.
The flyer spindle 246 has a threaded end portion 248. A double whorled
pulley sheave 250 is threaded onto this threaded portion to secure bobbin
244 on the spindle so that the bobbin is freely rotatable on the spindle.
Like bobbin 144, bobbin 244 has a plain disk 284 at its end adjacent cross
member 256 and a whorled disk 282 at its end adjacent pulley 250. Disk 282
and sheave 250 are driven by pulleys 26, 27 at different speeds as a
result of their differing diameters. The bobbin is driven faster and
therefore leads the flyer.
Flyer 242 has arms 258, 260 mounted on transverse member 256 and arm 260
incorporates a level wind mechanism. In terms of overall construction, arm
260 closely resembles arms 60, 160. However, the tubular structure of arm
260 is formed by a hollow rectangular wooden member encasing a metal tube
60. Arm 258 is a solid wood member. Except as described below, the level
wind mechanism is the same as that used in flyer assemblies 40, 140, like
parts being denoted by like reference numerals.
This embodiment of the invention utilizes a somewhat different form of gear
train from that used in embodiments of FIGS. 4 and 5. Gear 274 is
essentially the same as gear 74. Gear 290 is similar to gear 90 but is not
formed as part of bushing 286. Instead, gear 290 is connected to the end
face of disk 284 by means of a key 291. Instead of a single large gear,
such as gear 78, two smaller gears 278, 279 are connected in a series
between gear 290 and gear 274. Gears 278, 279 are both mounted for
rotation about an axis parallel to spindle 246 on transverse member 256.
This arrangement enables use of a rectangular opening 276 in arm 260 which
is somewhat smaller than opening 76.
Having described and illustrated a preferred embodiment of my invention and
two variations thereof, it should be readily apparent to those skilled in
the art that the invention can be modified in arrangement and detail
without departing from its principles. I claim as my invention all
modifications coming within the spirit and scope of the following claims.
* * * * *
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